Dr.SSA Giada Frontino

Dr. Giada Frontino

Dr.SSA Giada Frontino

Dr. Giada Frontino
Consultant Gynaecologist

English (UK)
English (UK)

Dr. Giada Frontino
Consultant Gynaecologist

Dr.ssa Giada Frontino
ginecologa italiana a londra

English (UK)
English (UK)


The difficulty or inability to have babies.

Infertility includes primary infertility (when there have been no pregnancies achieved despite 12 months of seeking to conceive) and secondary infertility (when there have been no pregnancies achieved despite having given birth in the past).

The reasons for infertility can be multiple.

In one-third of cases the difficulties in conceiving are due to the man.

In another one-third of cases the difficulties in conceiving are due to the woman.

In the remaining one-third of cases the difficulties in conceiving are due to both in the couple.

Having a consultation with your Gynaecologist will make a huge difference in possibly identifying and treating the causes of infertility.

Most couples will eventually conceive, with or without treatment.


Most frequent Causes of Male Infertility:

  • Abnormal sperm number or sperm quality due to undescended testicles, genetic defects, health conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disease, or infections such as Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Gonorrhoea, mumps or HIV.

  • Swollen veins in the testicles (varicocele) can sometimes worsen sperm quality.

  • Overexposure to certain environmental factors, such as pesticides and other chemicals, and radiation.

  • Cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, anabolic steroids, and certain medications, high blood pressure and depression also can affect fertility.

  • Frequent exposure to heat, such as in saunas or hot tubs, can raise body temperature and may affect sperm production.

  • Anomalies in transportation of sperm due to sexual problems, such as premature ejaculation; certain genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis; structural problems, such as a blockage in the testicle; or damage or injury to the reproductive organs.

  • Sperm damage caused by cancer and by its treatment, including radio or chemotherapy.


Most frequent Causes of Female Infertility:

  • Ovulation anomalies, which affect the release of eggs from the ovaries.

  • These include too much exercise, low and high BMI (Body Mass Index), hormonal disorders such as PCO (polycystic ovary) Syndrome.

  • Thyroid disease (untreated hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism) can affect the menstrual cycle or cause premature ovarian failure (early menopause).

  • Primary ovarian failure (early menopause): when the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40 (its cause is often unknown; certain factors include immune system diseases, some genetic conditions such as Turner syndrome or carriers of Fragile X syndrome, and radiation or chemotherapy treatment).

  • Untreated hyperprolactinemia, when too much prolactin is produced affects ovulation.

  • Anomalies of the uterus or the cervix (adhesions, endometrial polyps, uterine septum and other structural uterine anomalies).

  • Submucous uterine fibroids / myomas may cause difficulties with conceiving by blocking the fallopian tubes or stopping a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.

  • Fallopian tube damage is often caused by inflammation of the fallopian tube (salpingitis), which is usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) endometriosis or adhesions.

  • Endometriosis, which occurs when endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus, can sometimes affect the function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.

  • Cancer and its treatment (both radiation and chemotherapy may affect fertility).